Accreditation – an administrative procedure by which a person or an entity is approved by the BRC to carry out a specific activity in connection with the referendum. Different stakeholders apply for accreditation from the BRC to
obtain a document or pass giving them access to various locations such as polling places or count centres. This includes observers, scrutineers and members of the media.

Adjournment – polling is suspended due to an incident such as a riot, open violence of intimidation. The Presiding Officer has authority to make the adjournment. 1

Admitted – formal ballot papers which are included in the scrutiny. This term also includes all ballot boxes which are presented for scrutiny sealed with no suggestion of tampering.

Agency – see Bougainville Referendum Commission.

Appeal – for enrolment, any person who has made a claim for enrolment or transfer of enrolment and whose name does not appear, or whose name has been removed from the roll by the RO, may make an appeal for the
reinstatement of their name on the roll. 2 Any person making an objection to a name on the roll can also appeal if their objection is not sustained by the BRC.

Assignment- the appointment of National and Bougainvillean public servants to roles within the BRC secretariat.These appointees will remain on the payroll for their employing department and receive additional allowances as approved by the BRC for the conduct of their referendum responsibilities. Replaces – seconded.

Assistance to voters – the Presiding Officer may permit any voter requiring assistance due to disability or illiteracy to choose up to two people to assist with the voting process. 3

Assistant Presiding Officer (APO) – person appointed by the Returning Officer to assist the Presiding Officer to manage the polling team and to act in their place if required. The APO inks the voter’s finger and marks the gender tally.

Assistant Returning Officer (ARO) – person appointed by the BRC to assist the Returning Officer to manage the referendum for each ABG constituency.4 An ARO may be appointed for a portion of a voting district for which less
than 20,000 voters are enrolled.5
Assistants – a term used in the Organic Law to refer to officers appointed to assist with the compilation of the rolls. 6 For the referendum, these officers are Enrolment Supervisors, Enrolment Co-ordinators, Enrolment Team Leaders and Registration Officers.
Authorised person – person authorised to be present in a polling place 7 or count centre. In general, these include polling officials or counting officials, voters (at polling), observers, media personnel, scrutineers, special guests,
advisors, interpreters and security personnel or others authorised by the Presiding Officer, the ARO or the RO to be present.
Autonomous Bougainville Government (ABG) – House of Representatives in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville established by the Bougainville Constitution. Alternative: Bougainville Government.
Autonomous Region of Bougainville (AROB) – the official name for the area known as Bougainville. 8
Awareness – see Voter Information.
Ballot Paper (BP) – the authorised paper handed to a voter for them to mark their vote. The design or form of the ballot paper is determined by the BRC. 9 Each ballot paper must be initialled by the Presiding Officer on issue. 10 Ballot Box (BB) – the sealed container in which marked ballot papers are placed. It must have a cleft in the cover through which ballot papers may be deposited which can be sealed once polling has concluded (each day for multiday polling).11

Ballot Question – see Referendum Questions

Ballot Paper Security Features – specific security features which may include water marks, seals and individual numbering which are included to prevent the fraudulent copying of ballot papers. The ballot security features are part of the ballot paper design determined by the BRC.

Bougainvillean 12

  1. A person who is a member (whether by birth or by adoption according to custom by the clan lineage) of a Bougainvillean clan lineage (matrilineal or patrilineal) owning customary land in Bougainville;
  2. A person who is married (whether by law or by custom) to a Bougainvillean (refer to number 1 above);
  3. A person who is a child, one of whose parents is Bougainvillean (refer to number 1 above);
  4. A person who was not born in Bougainvillean, or who is not of Bougainville descent or who is a non-citizen may be adopted as a member of a Bougainville clan according to custom.

Bougainville Chief Secretary – the person holding or acting in the office of Chief Secretary 13 to the ABG.

Bougainville Constitution – see the Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (2004)

Bougainville Electoral Commissioner (EC) – the person holding or acting in the office of the Bougainville Electoral Commissioner.14

Bougainville Executive Council (BEC) – as provided for in Part VI Division 2 of the Bougainville Constitution.

Bougainville Gazette – the official journal of the Autonomous Bougainville Government. See Gazette.

Bougainville Government – see Autonomous Bougainville Government.

Bougainville Law – a law made in accordance with The Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (2004). A Bougainville law (or a national law) may confer additional powers, function, duties or responsibilities on the BRC, or make other provision in relation to the conduct of the Referendum. 15

Bougainville Peace Agreement (BPA) – a joint creation of the National Government of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea and leaders representing the people of Bougainville to resolve the Bougainville conflict and to secure a lasting peace by peaceful means. It was signed at Arawa, 30 August 2001 and published in the National Gazette.16 It has three pillars: autonomy, referendum and weapons disposal. Alternative: Peace Agreement.

Bougainville Police Service (BPS) – the police service in Bougainville comprising auxiliary and regular police officers.17 The auxiliary officers are called Community Auxiliary Police (CAP).

Bougainville Public Service – the Bougainville Public Service.18

Bougainville Referendum (BR) – a referendum is a direct vote conducted in a democratic system in which voters are given the power decide a policy question. The Bougainville Referendum is a non-binding referendum to vote on Bougainville’s future political status as negotiated by the National Government and leaders representing the people of Bougainville as part of the Peace Agreement.19 The referendum must be held by 15 th June 2020.

Bougainville Referendum Commission (BRC) – the independent Agency established 20 to conduct the Bougainville Referendum. 21 The BRC has a board of 7 commissioners to provide governance oversight to the conduct of the referendum, carried out by the Secretariat which is led by the Chief Referendum Officer.

Bougainville Referendum Commission Charter – the agreement between the National Government and the ABG, and the PNG Electoral Commission and the Bougainville Electoral Commissioner which sets out the administrative requirements for conducting the referendum and thus establish the Bougainville Referendum Commission.22

Bougainville Referendum Commission Transitional Committee (BRC-TC) – the Bougainville Referendum Commission Transitional Committee (comprising the two electoral commissioners as co-chairs and the two chief secretaries), which is responsible for progressing referendum preparations from the date of the charter until the establishment of the BRC 23 and after its disestablishment (3 months after the last petition date until the winding up of the Commission).24

Bougainville Referendum Commission Secretariat – the organisational framework of managers and their staff responsible for the conduct of the referendum. The secretariat is established by the BRC 25 and headed by the Chief Referendum Officer.

Bougainville Referendum Regulation 2019 – regulations to the Organic Law approved by both governments to guide the conduct of the Bougainville Referendum. Alternative: Constitutional Regulations

Campaigning – an organised effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns by which representatives are chosen or
referendum are decided.

Certified list of voters 26 – roll of eligible voters in a designated voting district that has been certified by the Returning Officer for that voting district as an accurate record of the eligible voters in that voting district.

Charter – see BRC Charter

Chief Referendum Officer (CRO) – the person holding or acting in the office of Chief Referendum Officer as set out in the Bougainville Referendum Commission Charter. 27 Senior official appointed by the BRC to oversee the administration of the referendum. The CRO is supported by two Deputy Referendum Officers who manage teams of line managers.

Codes of Conduct – sets of guidelines, primarily ethical in nature, intended to regulate the conduct of referendum officials and stakeholders and their dealings with one another. Codes of conduct are likely to be developed to apply to recognised interest groups, observers, scrutineers, media and referendum officials.

Community Auxiliary Police (CAP) – auxiliary members of the Bougainville Police Service (BPS) who are community based. See also Bougainville Police Service.

Complaint – see Appeal or Dispute Resolution.

Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (2004) – the legal framework for the Autonomous Bougainville Government.

Constituency – see Voting District. The area inside Bougainville to be used to administer the conduct of the referendum. There will be one ARO per ABG constituency to oversee the enrolment and polling activities for that

Count – see Scrutiny

Count centre – authorised venue for the conduct of the scrutiny of ballot papers for the two voting districts as determined by the BRC.28

Court 29 – the National Court, or a Bougainville Court (with similar jurisdiction) established by The Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (2004).

Declaration vote 30 – ballot paper that is issued to voters claiming to vote under specific provisions of the law. A declaration vote is placed into a declaration vote envelope.

Deputy Referendum Officer (DRO) – senior official, reporting to the CRO, and appointed to oversee the activities in either Operations or Corporate Services.

Delegation – the conferring of powers and functions by the BRC to an official in order to carry out the referendum. 31 The BRC can delegate its own powers and those of the Returning Officer, but not statutory powers of other officials such as the Presiding Officer. It is anticipated that the BRC will delegate the administration of the referendum to the Chief Referendum Officer, and that the CRO will have the power to sub-delegate many functions to other officials.

Discarded ballot paper – marked ballot paper found outside the ballot box. A discarded ballot paper is not admitted to scrutiny and is kept in a labelled and sealed envelope. A discarded ballot is counted as part of the used ballot
papers tally in the reconciliation of ballot papers.

Disputes Resolution – a procedure developed by the BRC available to stakeholders to make a complaint about a specific aspect of the process. In the alternative some stakeholders may elect to take their dispute directly to the courts where provided in the Organic Law.32

District – a geographical area which has different meanings in different parts of PNG.

District Administration Office (DAO) – administrative centre for the 13 ABG government administrative districts throughout Bougainville. A PNGEC electorate is known as a district. See also Voting District (Bougainville Referendum) For the Referendum, the terms District Administration Office (or Administrative District) and Voting Districts will be used.

Door Keeper (DK) – a member of the polling team who directs the flow of voters into the polling booth from the entry.

Election Management Body (EMB) – a generic term for the collective body that is generally independent from the executive branch of government and which is tasked, by law, to prepare and implement an electoral (or referendum) event. It is administratively and financially independent and is made up of independent members who are not connected to any government body.

Election Manager (EM) – the administrative and management representative of the PNG Electoral Commissioner in a province in PNG.

Electoral Commissioner (EC) – the head of the electoral commission of PNG (PNGEC, responsible for the conduct of National and Local Level Government elections throughout PNG) and the head of the electoral commission of Bougainville (The Office of the Bougainville Electoral Commissioner, or OBEC) which is responsible for the conduct of ABG and Bougainville community government elections). The two electoral commissioners are ex-officio members of the Bougainville Referendum Commission.

Eligibility – the legal entitlement to enrol 33 and to vote. All Bougainvilleans whose names are on the referendum roll are eligible to vote.

Enrolment – the process of having a person’s name included on the referendum roll for a particular voting district.34 Inclusion on the roll is a prerequisite for an individual to exercise his or her right to vote in the referendum. Alternative: Voter Registration

Electoral Cycle – the different stages of the electoral process. This can be represented as a visual planning and training tool designed to help electoral agencies and officials, development providers, stakeholders and the public to understand the cyclical nature of electoral processes. The electoral cycle is divided into three main periods: pre-electoral, electoral and post-electoral but has no fixed starting or ending point, as one cycle ends when another begins. For the conduct of a one-off event such as a referendum, all key phases of the electoral cycle are relevant but this is not a continuous cycle.

Fine – see Penalty

Formal ballot paper – a ballot paper which has been marked in a legally acceptable way to clearly indicate the voter’s preference.35 All formal votes are admitted to scrutiny.

Gazette – The official journals of the National Government and the Autonomous Bougainville Government. To gazette – is to publish a notice in the Bougainville or National Gazette (or both).

Indelible Ink – Long-lasting ink used to mark a person’s finger when they receive a ballot paper. Inking is designed to alert polling officials to the likelihood of a previous attempt to vote by the person claiming a vote and is designed to act as a deterrent to attempts to claim multiple votes. The process for using ink is set out in the Regulations.36

Informal ballot paper – a ballot paper which does not clearly indicate the voter’s preference; has not been signed by the Presiding Officer; or on which the voter has written something which enables them to be identified. A counting official examines each ballot paper where formality is queried and either admits or rejects the ballot paper for further scrutiny. Informal ballot papers are tallied but the voter’s choice does not contribute to the overall tally.37

Ink – see Indelible Ink

Inspection of the Rolls – the process where Returning Officer displays the certified list of voters after the voter registration process and prior to the issue of the writ so people can check their details.38 The purpose is to allow
citizens who registered to make sure that their names appear on the list. If they have been omitted, or there is an error in their name, they can request it to be rectified. Displaying the lists also allows citizens to contest the inclusion of names that should not be there. The person making the claim will be required to provide proof to warrant the removal of a name, on the basis of the death or disqualification of a voter.

Interested Party – The National Government, the Autonomous Bougainville Government, or a recognised interest group are interested parties in the referendum.39

Issue of writ – The formal instruction by the Head of State (ie, the Governor General) to the BRC, to conduct the referendum. See Writ.

Issuance – A formal notification by the BRC regarding aspects of the referendum process. See also Section 62 issuance

Joint Supervisory Body (JSB) – the group established to make decisions as required by law regarding Bougainville’s autonomous arrangements, including the Bougainville Referendum.40 Membership comprises the two chief secretaries, the Prime Minister of PNG and the President of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville.

Kundupei – software programme provided by the Bank of South Pacific (BSP) for an agency to process payroll payments. The BRC may use Kundupei to pay allowances to temporary field staff and employed or assigned officers
to the secretariat (according to its HR policies).

Last petition date – is the last date for the filing of a petition disputing the result of the Bougainville Referendum (within 40 days after the declaration of the result and return of the writ). This date is set out in the schedule of legal dates once the referendum dates are gazetted.41 See Petition.

Legal framework – the framework of laws defining the conduct of the referendum consisting of constitutional provisions, legislation and regulations. The Referendum arrangements are set out in the following documents:

  • the Bougainville Peace Agreement (BPA), 2001 (paragraphs 309 – 330, and the BPA ‘Introduction and Outline’);
  • Constitution the Independent State of Papua New Guinea (Part XIV Division 7 mainly sections 338-343), and also the Preamble to and first three sections (276 – 278) of the Constitutional Amendment (Peace-building in Bougainville – Autonomous Bougainville Government and Bougainville Referendum) which inserted Part XIV into the Constitution;
  • The Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (2004 ), especially sections 193 and 194;
  • the PNG Constitutional Laws giving effect to the BPA, namely: the Organic Law on Peace-building in Bougainville – Autonomous Bougainville Government and Bougainville Referendum 2002 especially sections 52 to 63, and Schedule 1 (the ‘Rules Relating to the Conduct of the Referendum’) and
  • Bougainville Referendum Law Regulation 2019

Mark – a sign defined by law which the voter writes next to the option of their choice on the ballot paper.42 For the Bougainville Referendum, the voter is instructed to record a vote on the ballot paper by placing an “X” in the square to indicate their choice on the question.

National Chief Secretary – the person holding or acting in the office of the Chief Secretary to the National Government. 43

National Constitution – see Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea. Alternative: PNG constitution.

National Elections (NATEL) – elections for the PNG National Parliament, held once every five years. National Elections are conducted by the PNG Electoral Commission.

National Executive Council (NEC) – the National Executive Council.44

National Gazette – the official journal of the National Government of Papua New Guinea. See Gazette.

National Government – (GoPNG) – the Government of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea.45

National Public Service – the Public Service of Papua New Guinea.46

Non-resident Bougainvillean – a person who resides outside of Bougainville who is entitled to vote at the Referendum according to the criteria defined.47 Alternatives: NRB, also known as Bougainvilleans Outside Bougainville or BOBs for ABG elections. (BoBs is NOT to be used for the Referendum). One ARO is appointed to oversee the enrolment and polling services for NRB.

Non-sensitive materials – materials required for the conduct of the referendum are described as either sensitive or non-sensitive. A lack or loss of non-sensitive materials may cause a delay in the polling but they would not affect the result. Examples include stationery, voting screens and manuals).

Objection – a claim against a name on the roll, made by a voter whose name is on the same roll. The objection must be lodged with the RO in writing. The RO must advise the person whose enrolment has been objected to and
determine the outcome as soon as possible. 48

Observer – a person who does not represent any position and who can observe the referendum process including enrolment, delivery of ballot boxes for scrutiny, scrutiny and recounts according to BRC policy. The observer must be a member of a registered observer group (domestic or international), and wear identification at all times.49

Offence – any illegal act intended to modify the result of the referendum. This includes tampering with the ballot papers, multiple voting, bribery and personation and is punishable by a penalty of a fine or imprisonment.50 See also Prescribed Offences.

Office of the Bougainville Electoral Commissioner (OBEC) – the Election Management Body responsible for the conduct of Bougainville elections.51

Official Mark – the authorised mark by the Presiding Officer placed on each ballot paper before issuing the ballot paper to a voter. A ballot paper without this mark is considered informal.52 Alternatives: PO signature, PO initials.

Operations Manual – the manual produced by the BRC to describe the operational procedures, that officials are expected to follow at all times. The Operations Manual is complemented by specific manuals, training resources
and guides related to enrolment, polling and scrutiny.

Organic Law on National and Local Level Government Elections in the Independent State of Papua New Guinea 1997 – the legislation of PNG which outlines the law for the conduct of National and Local Level elections in PNG.

The Organic Law on Peacebuilding in Bougainville-Autonomous Bougainville Government and Bougainville Referendum 2002 – the legislation of PNG which outlines the law in relation to Bougainville. Alternative: Organic Bougainville Referendum Law, Organic Law.

Out of Constituency voting– services for eligible Bougainvilleans who are within Bougainville but outside their constituency during the scheduled polling period in their constituency. Designated locations throughout
Bougainville will be available to provide for voting services for these voters (generally DAO and BRC Regional Offices)

Out of Country Services (OCV) – services for eligible Bougainvilleans who reside abroad as designated by the BRC.

Papua New Guinea Electoral Commission (PNGEC) – the national Election Management Body of Papua New Guinea.53 The Papua New Guinea Electoral Commissioner is the person who leads the Commission.54

Peace Agreement – see Bougainville Peace Agreement.

Penalty – punishment given to a person who is found guilty of a referendum offence. The penalty may be a fine or a term of imprisonment. 55

Petition – the result of the referendum may be disputed by a petition addressed to the Court.56 The result of the Referendum may be disputed by the BRC or by a voter.57

Poll Clerk (PC) – an official in the polling team who is assigned to mark a voter’s name off the roll and provide assistance to the Presiding Officer.

Polling – the process of collecting votes whereby each voter marks a ballot paper and put into a ballot box.58 Alternative: voting.

Polling Booth – the area inside a polling place 59 in which voters enter, have their names marked off the certified list of voters, receive their ballot papers, mark their ballot papers, and deposit their ballot papers into the ballot box.

Polling Officials – a Returning Officer, an Assistant Returning Officer or a person appointed to the polling team 60 such as the Presiding Officer, Assistant Presiding Officer, Poll Clerk, Ballot box guard, Door Keeper. Alternative: polling TRW.

Polling Place – a geographic location where polling takes place.61 The polling place is identified by the ARO for the voting district and gazetted in the polling schedule.

Polling Period – the period for the first and last days of polling which are specified in the writ for the referendum, and includes any extension granted. 62

Polling Schedule – the election timetable that outlines the dates and locations of polling. 63 The polling schedule must be gazetted and publicly displayed.64

Polling Team – the team of polling officials employed to work at a polling place for the conduct of the poll. This may include the following: Presiding Officer, Assistant Presiding Officer, Polling Clerk, Ballot box Guard, Door Keeper. Police officers and other security personnel are not members of the polling team even though they may accompany the polling team. The size of the team is determined according to the specific requirements of the area.

Postal Voting (PV) – an option for voters who are otherwise unable to attend a polling place.65 Postal voters must apply in person or in writing (issue of the writ +10 days until 4pm the day before polling commences) and they will be provided their ballot papers for completion. The postal voting certificate is a legal form. 66

Prescribed offence – an illegal act as set out in law. 67

Presiding Officer (PO) – the person appointed by the Returning Officer to manage the polling team and who has responsibility for overseeing the polling in specified polling places.68

Provisional Voting – voting services for voters whose names are not found on the referendum roll but who claim to be eligible to vote in that constituency. A provisional vote is a declaration vote.69

Public Scrutiny of the Roll – see Inspection.

Questions put to a voter – an official may ask a voter questions to determine their eligibility to vote, and at the request of a scrutineer. If a person refuses to answer the questions or answers them incorrectly, the Presiding Officer will reject the voter’s right to vote. This is the only ground for a Presiding Officer to reject a voter.70

Recognised Interest Groups (RIG) – any group which seeks to promote a position on the Bougainville Referendum and is approved to do so by the BRC. A RIG may appoint scrutineers to observe various processes such as polling and scrutiny.71

Reconciliation – the operational process whereby the Presiding Officer accounts for the ballot papers issued to the voting team. This process involves checking the numbers of ballot papers issued to voters and those which remain unused. The reconciliation process takes place before scrutiny as a measure of transparency.

Recount – a subsequent count of ballot papers after the initial scrutiny if deemed necessary and upon the direction of the BRC to the RO or another official. 72 The recount may happen at any time before the writ is returned. A court may order a recount as a result of a petition.

Referendum – the means by which a population is called to vote to answer a question or express a choice between options. See Bougainville Referendum.

Referendum Journal – the book of forms to be completed by the Presiding Officer for each polling team as an official record of the polling. The Referendum Journal includes an account of the number of voters (through the use of gender tally sheets) and the receipt and the distribution of ballot papers. The Referendum Journal, once used, forms part of the sensitive materials for the poling team and it must be retained until the end of the petition period.

Referendum Question – the option(s) on the ballot paper which seek a voter’s preference.

Referendum Roll – the roll compiled for the conduct of the Bougainville Referendum.73 There is one roll for each voting district, and only those voters whose names are on the roll for a voting district are entitled to vote in the referendum.74 It is mandatory that all eligible persons enrol. 75

Regional Referendum Centre – regional centres set up to oversee the administration of the referendum for each of the three regions in Bougainville (North, Central, South) with three centres established to cater for non-resident Bougainvilleans. Each regional centre is managed by a Regional Referendum Manager (RRM). The Regional Referendum Centre receives and distributes referendum supplies; carries out recruitment and training of officials; receives and securely stores completed referendum materials; and carries out scrutiny. A hub in each voting district
provides additional support to the regional centre.

Regional Referendum Manager (RRM) – the person appointed to oversee and co-ordinate the administration and logistics for each of the Regional Referendum Centres. The RRM may be delegated some of the powers of the RO to carry out particular processes. RRM may be assisted by a deputy.

Rejection – dismissal or refusal, in the following contexts:

  • Rejection of a claim for enrolment, or the transfer of enrolment if the Returning Officer determines that the person is not eligible to be enrolled.76
  • Rejection of a voter’s claim to vote is when the Presiding Officer asks the questions to be put to a voter and the voter either refuses or is unable to answer the questions correctly.77
  • Rejection of a ballot box into the scrutiny may occur if the officer conducting the scrutiny has reason to believe the sealed ballot box containing marked ballot papers has been tampered with.
  • Rejection of a ballot paper at scrutiny is when the official determines that the ballot paper is informal and marks it as ‘rejected’.

Residence – the BRC issuance on voting districts within Bougainville states that for the purposes of enrolment by a resident of Bougainville under Section schedule 1.23(1) of the Organic Law, a place of residence may be a family residence, clan residence, or work residence. ‘Residence’ for the purposes of non-resident Bougainvilleans is yet to be defined.

Results – The Returning Officer is required to notify the BRC (via the Tally Centre) the results of the scrutiny in their voting district by way of reporting the total number of votes given for each choice as well as the number of informal ballot papers. There is no publication of outcome by voting district. The BRC 78 is responsible for the compilation of the tally and its publication in the Gazettes and in an available newspaper at the same time the writ is returned.

Results Management System (RMS) – the system used for the collation of voting district tallies into a total number of votes for each choice on the ballot paper as these are transmitted from the count centres.

Return of the Writ – the date stipulated by the Head of State marking the end of the referendum period when the results are delivered to the Head of State. See Writ.

Returning Officer (RO) – the person appointed by the BRC to manage the referendum for each voting district 79 and is responsible for the conduct of the referendum for the voting district to which they are assigned (enrolment
including certifying the list of voters, conduct of poll, conduct of scrutiny and reporting of the outcome of the scrutiny to the BRC). Returning Officer powers can be delegated by the BRC to allow other officials to carry out some of these processes.

Roll Display – see Inspection of the Rolls.

Scrutiny – procedure for the sorting, checking for formality and counting of marked ballot papers to get the result of the vote.80 Scrutiny takes place in an authorised count centre.

Scrutineer – an agent of a Recognised Interest Group 81 or an Interested Party who is entitled to observe various processes during the referendum such as polling and counting.

Secrecy envelope – envelope provided to a voter 82 making a declaration vote, provisional vote or a postal vote for placing a marked ballot paper inside. The sealed secrecy envelope is placed inside a declaration envelope, provisional or postal voting envelope which is sealed before placing this into a ballot box.

Secretariat – see BRC Secretariat.

Security Seal – individually numbered seal, which is used to lock ballot boxes. For the type of ballot box used in PNG, the ballot box lids are sealed with seals to keep the lid in place during polling and transportation. The central flap of a ballot box is sealed at the conclusion of polling each day and for transporting ballot boxes, but is left unsealed during polling.

Section 62 issuance – a formal notification issued exercising the powers of the BRC under section 62 of the Organic Law, to resolve a difficulty arising from an inconsistency or gap or uncertainty in the Organic Law for the purpose of administration. See also Issuance

Sensitive Materials – official materials which may contain information about individuals and if not properly managed by referendum officials, can be used/or their integrity compromised for fraudulent purposes. This includes ballot papers, the certified list of voters, sealed ballot boxes, envelopes of discarded, spoilt and declaration votes, postal votes, used seals, indelible ink, the completed Referendum Journal and completed forms used at scrutiny. These materials must be handled according to strict operational procedures and are subject to special security measures.

Simulation – an exercise carried out prior to the referendum for officials to test the equipment and procedures such as polling and/or scrutiny.

Spoilt Ballot Paper – a ballot paper which a voter mistakenly marks in an unintended way and which they return to the Presiding Officer to get a replacement ballot paper. 83 The Presiding Officer marks ‘spoilt’ across the front of the ballot paper and places it into an enveloped marked Spoilt Ballot Papers. Spoilt ballot papers are used ballot papers, and the Presiding Officer must keep all and account for them during the reconciliation process.

Tally – the process of compiling the tally from each voting district using a Results Management System. The tally compiles the numbers in each option so there is one overall number of votes for each option, as well as a record of the total number of ballot papers used. This process takes place in one central tally centre.

TEW System – PNGEC’s online Temporary Election Workforce system for the recruitment and management of the temporary workforce. The system is compatible with BSP’s Kundupei system to allow for transfer of payment data to Kundupei from a file in the TEW system. BRC will utilise the TEW system for the duration of the referendum.

Temporary Referendum Worker (TRW) – any official who is employed for specific time bound field work during the referendum such as the enrolment, polling and counting phases and any other officials employed to support the processes.

Transmission Envelope – Envelope used for the delivery of completed postal votes to a ARO.84

Unused Ballot Paper – a ballot paper which has not been issued to a voter.

Used Ballot Paper – a ballot paper which has been issued to a voter. Used ballot papers are stored in sealed ballot boxes during polling, before scrutiny and after scrutiny and are part of the sensitive materials that must be kept secure until the petition period has concluded. See also Spoilt Ballot Paper, Discarded Ballot Paper.

Voter – a person whose name appears on a roll. 85

Voter information – a process of giving relevant factual information about the referendum process on a timely basis. This includes when, where and how voters will vote and why voters should participate. When this is done during the preparatory stages of the referendum it aids transparency and generates confidence in the electoral process.

Voter Registration (VR) – the process of entering the names of eligible voters on to the referendum roll.86 See Enrolment

Voter Registration database – set of data concerning the voter list, generally stored in digital format.

Voter turnout – percentage of eligible voters in a population who vote in the referendum. This is a significant indicator of the level of interest among voters and may have an impact on the credibility of the referendum process.

Voting age – the minimum legal age that a person must reach in order to be eligible to vote. The legal age for voting in Papua New Guinea is 18.87

Voting Compartment – the screen which provides privacy to allow voters to mark their ballot paper in secret.88

Voting District – a defined geographical area within or outside Bougainville which is the unit for the compilation of the roll, the conduct of polling and the reporting of results. The BRC determines the areas that are to be voting districts. 89 Voters are on the referendum roll for a voting district and are entitled to vote in their voting district as well as at designated polling places outside the voting district. Within Bougainville, the voting district is the same area as an ABG constituency. The voting districts outside of Bougainville are yet to be determined. Alternative terminology for other electoral events: district, electorate, constituency.

Writ – the authority given by the Head of State 90 to the BRC to conduct the referendum. The writ stipulates the dates for the issue of the writ, the cut-off date for amendments to the rolls, the first and last dates of polling and the date for the return of the writ. 90 . The writ complies with the provisions of the Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea 91 and must be on the prescribed form. 92

  1. Section Sch.1.93. Organic Law
  2. Section Sch.1.41. Organic Law
  3. Section Sch.1.87 Organic Law
  4. Section Sch.1.5 Organic Law
  5. Regulation 5
  6. Section Sch.1.16. Organic Law
  7. Section Sch.1.77 Organic Law
  8. Section 1 The Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (2004)
  9. Section Sch.1.75 Organic Law
  10. Section Sch.1.76 Organic Law
  11. Section Sch 1.73 Organic Law
  12. Section 11 of the Bougainville Public Services (Management and Administration) Act 2014
  13. Section 106 (1) The Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville 2004
  14. Section 63 Organic Law
  15. National Gazette No G146 16 November 2001
  16. Section 138 (1)(b) The Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville 2004
  17. Section 138(1)(a) Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville 2004
  18. Part XIV Division 7 Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  19. Section 4 Bougainville Referendum Charter 2017
  20. Sections 56 and 58 Organic Law
  21. Division 3, part 57 Organic Law
  22. Section 5 (2) (a)) Bougainville Referendum Charter 2017
  23. Section 25 Bougainville Referendum Charter 2017
  24. Section 14 Bougainville Referendum Charter 2017
  25. Part V Organic Law
  26. Section 14 Bougainville Referendum Charter 2017
  27. Section Sch.1.97 Organic Law
  28. Section Sch.1.152 Organic Law
  29. Division X11.4; Section Sch.1.88; 1.89 Organic Law
  30. Section Sch.1.2 Organic Law
  31. See for example PART XVII – DISPUTED RETURNS Organic Law.
  32. Section Sch.1.23 Th Organic Law
  33. Part VII Organic Law
  34. Section Sch.1.101, 102 Organic Law
  35. Regulation 14
  36. Section Sch.1.102 Organic Law
  37. Section Sch. 1.21 Organic Law
  38. Part 1 Organic Law
  39. Section 332 Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  40. Section Sch. 1.157 Organic Law
  41. Section Sch.1.86 Organic Law
  42. Section 19 Prime Minister and National Executive Council Act 2002 of the National Parliament
  43. Section 149 Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  44. Section 99 Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  45. Section 188(1)(a) Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  46. Section Sch.1.55(1) Organic Law
  47. Part VIII Organic Law
  48. Section Sch 1.11 Organic Law
  49. Part XVI Organic Law
  50. Section 106 (1) The Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville 2004.
  51. Section Sch.1.102 (2) Organic Law
  52. Section 5 Organic Law
  53. Section 5 Organic Law on National and Local Level Government Elections in the Independent State of Papua New Guinea 1997
  54. Part XVI Organic Law
  55. Section Sch.1.553 Organic Law
  56. Section Sch.1.555 Organic Law
  57. Part XII Organic Law
  58. Section Sch.1.69(2) Organic Law
  59. Section Sch.1.69 Organic Law
  60. Section Sch.1.13, 1.14 Organic Law
  61. Section Sch.1.125 Organic Law
  62. Section Sch.1.65 Organic Law
  63. Section Sch.1.66 Organic Law
  64. Part XI Organic Law
  65. Section 11, Regulation
  66. Section Sch. 1.176 Organic Law
  67. Section Sch. 1.69 (1) (a) Organic Law
  68. BRC s62 issuance 2019
  69. Section 1.181 Organic Law
  70. Section 1.10 Organic Law
  71. Section 1.117 Organic Law
  72. Part V Organic Law
  73. Section Sch.1.23 Organic Law
  74. Section Sch.1.27 Organic Law
  75. Section Sch. 1.29 Organic Law
  76. Section Sch. 1.81 Organic Law
  77. Section Sch. 1.123 Organic Law
  78. Section Sch. 1.4 Organic Law
  79. Part XIII Organic Law Section Sch. 1.92 Organic Law
  80. Section Sch. 1.10 Organic Law
  81. BRC s62 Issuance 2019
  82. Section Sch.1.92 Organic Law
  83. BRC s62 Issuance 2019
  84. Part I Organic Law
  85. Part V Organic Law
  86. Section 50 Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea.
  87. Section Sch. 1.72 Organic Law
  88. Section Sch.1.12 Organic Law, BRC s62 Issuance 2019
  89. The Governor General of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  90. Part X Organic Law
  91. Section 338 Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  92. Section Sch.1.177 Organic Law